International Water Ski Federation
Environmental Handbook for Towed Water Sports  


Appendix A - Types of Pollutants and their Impacts

Appendix B - Marine Engines and Fuels

Appendix C - Codes of Practice

Appendix D - Waste Management Program

Appendix E - A Sample "Clean Boating Policy"

Appendix F - References and Resources


Hydrocarbons -- Gasoline and Oil Emissions

What are Hydrocarbons? Hydrocarbons are products derived from crude oil and include gasoline, diesel fuel and most oils and greases. 

Why are they harmful? They are toxic to humans and some species.  Being less dense than water, they float on the surface and smother marine larvae that need to breathe at the surface.  This loss can impact the water body’s food chain of species.  In their gaseous state, they contribute to ground level ozone that is a major component of smog.  Smog, or air pollution, is known to cause asthma and cancer in humans.

Points of Control: Boat engine operation (through Codes of Practice), Gas docks, pumping bilges, machinery service, engine tuning, and transfer of fuel tanks. 

Air Emissions

What are they?  There are five main classes of atmospheric pollutants, namely particulates, ground level ozone, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons, nitrogen oxides and sulfur oxides.  They originate from three processes: combustion, vapourization and mechanical abrasion and wear. 

Why are they harmful?  As contaminants in the atmosphere these air emissions are highly toxic to plants and animals; consequently, they directly disrupt  the ecosystem.  These contaminants cause local problems, including summer smog.  They are also responsible for acid rain, global warming, ozone depletion and the ‘green-house’ effect.

Points of control:   The operation of engines and furnaces, fuel filling and storage, mechanical service and maintenance work, engine tuning, and use of some aerosol products. 

Bacteria and Viruses

What are they?  Microbial organisms contained in human and animal sewage. 

Why are they harmful?  They include bacteria and viruses that are directly harmful to human health.  Illnesses resulting from ingestion of polluted water include diarrhea, dysentery, hepatitis and salmonella.

Points of control:  Pump-out station, black water holding tanks and overboard discharges (especially the “Y” valve release system); septic systems, grounds maintenance. 


What are they? Suspended particulate matter from bottom of water body that causes water turbidity.  Particulate matter washed off the land into the water column. 

Why are they harmfulThey contain organic material that uses up the water’s dissolved oxygen in their decomposition process.   An increase in the turbidity of the water reduces  the amount of light getting into the water column and in turn reduces the growth of submerged aquatic vegetation.  They also cause an increase in phosphorous concentrations that can lead to increase in algae, chlorophyll concentrations, and gross oxygen production. 

Points of control:  Boat engine operation (especially in waters less than 2 metres); stormwater management system; dock and shore area where boats and other vehicles may be washed; garage and repair shop areas. 

Metals including Anti-fouling Paints

What are they?  Metals and metal-containing compounds have many marine applications including use as fuel additives (lead), paint pigments (arsenic), wood preservatives (arsenic), corrosion protection (zinc), anti-fouling (tin and copper), construction materials (iron, aluminum and chrome). 

Anti-fouling paints – these are used widely by all boaters as they protect the hull and improve fuel efficiency.  They are made using metals which can be carcinogenic and toxic to both marine and land animals, and humans.  Tributyltin (TBT) was the major biocide used before being banned in the late eighties in most developed countries because of its toxicity, specifically to shellfish. 

Why are they harmful?  Above certain concentrations metals are toxic to humans and aquatic organisms.  They are bio-accumulative and may eventually reach concentrations in the food chain where they are toxic to larger species, like humans. 

New anti-fouling paints are being made using copper.  Copper ingestion above natural levels can prove toxic to certain marine organisms. 

Points of control:  Boat engine operation, fuel dock, engine and hull maintenance area, retail store, water and wash areas. 


What are they?  Chemicals used as cleaners, degreasers, thinners for paints and lacquers, including substances such as trichloroethylene and methylene chloride. 

Why are they harmful?  Many are known carcinogens.  Being relatively stable, they are insoluble in water and tend to accumulate in the ecosystem. 

Points of control:  Machinery and hull maintenance areas, retail store 


What is it?  Ethylene glycol or propylene glycol used in engine cooling systems to prevent freezing during winter storage 

Why is it harmful?  Both types can be harmful to humans and aquatic organisms. 

Points of control:  Machinery service, boat storage areas, and retail store. 

Acids and Alkalis 

What are they?  Acids are used as the electrolyte in batteries and occasionally as straight cleaners.  Both strong acids and alkalis are often the main constituents of cleaning compounds and detergents. 

Why are they harmful?  They are toxic if ingested.  Acids in particular will dissolve other contaminants such as heavy metals, resulting in indirect toxicity to humans and aquatic organisms. 

Points of control:  Machinery and hull maintenance areas, dock area, and retail store. 


What are they?  Chemicals added to detergents to reduce surface tension. 

Why are they harmful?  Some, such as alkyl benzene sulfonate (ABS), are chronically toxic to aquatic organisms. Surfactants can form a film on the surface of water and reduce oxygen transfer at the air/water interface. 

Points of control:  Any process that generates grey water 


What are they?  Chemical elements, primarily nitrogen and phosphorous, that are essential for aquatic plants and algae to grow and reproduce.  They are found in many soaps and detergents and are the main working ingredients of fertilizers. 

Why are they harmful?  In excessive concentrations they may stimulate nuisance growths of some plants and algae.  Excessive growth and decay of plants lowers dissolved oxygen concentrations and reduces water clarity. 

Points of control:  All processes that generate grey water containing soaps and detergents; ground maintenance (especially fertilizers). 

Solid Wastes 

What are they?  All man-made solid debris that finds its way into the natural environment. 

Why are they harmful?  Plastics, in particular, remain intact for decades.  They attract wildlife that then tries to eat them or gets caught in them.  Nylon fishing line and the plastic ring holders for beverage six-packs are especially dangerous to birds and water fowl.  All debris is visually unacceptable.  Concentrations of food waste can affect dissolved oxygen levels as they decompose in the water. 

Points of control:  The marina’s waste management system, boaters (Code of Practice), dock area, and retail store.   

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Recreational marine engines, either gasoline or diesel burning, generate pollution from the combustion of fuel which creates exhaust.  In the early 1990s it was estimated that between 567 million to 1.6 billion litres of unburned fuel was emitted into the environment each year by 12 million gas powered pleasure boats, in the United States alone (Mele, 1993).  By factoring in an estimate for the impact from all recreational boats operating in countries around the world, over several decades, it quickly becomes apparent why the boating industry must, and is, taking action to significantly reduce hydrocarbon emissions.

The following section provides an overview of: 

·         The different types of marine engines used for water skiing and how they impact  the environment. 

·         The various types of fuels used in boating

·         The most recent technological advancements in marine engines

·         The United States Environmental Protection Agency’s (and California’s) recent regulations for marine engines 


The engines used for water skiing are either inboard or outboard, with the former most likely a four-stroke gasoline or diesel engine.  Boat engines used for water ski racing are often turbo or supercharged. Outboard engines are attached to the stern of the boat and are invariably two- stroke, operating on a gasoline/oil mix.  Historically, the typical two-stroke engine tended to be noisier and emit considerably higher levels of hydrocarbons, than the four-stroke engines. 

Two-Stroke and Four-Stroke Marine Engines  

Older two-stroke outboard engines have the reputation of being one of the most polluting of recreational engines because of an inefficient 'scavenging' process.  What this means is that incoming fuel to the piston's combustion chamber 'scavenges' or pushes the burned exhaust gases out of the cylinder causing compression, ignition and energy. Through this scavenging process between 20 and 50 percent of the unburned fuel is emitted into the water through the exhaust system. 

The four-stroke engine is considerably cleaner as there is no mixing of gas and oil and it typically gets about twice the mileage of the common older model two-stroke engine.  A four-stroke fires its spark plug to make power every other time the piston has climbed to the top of the cylinder verses the two-stroke engine firing every time.  The other major difference between these two engines is that the lubricating oil for the two-stroke engine is mixed with the fuel and is emitted on each stroke whereas the oil for the four-stroke sits in the crankcase or sump.  Only if the piston rings that seal the gap between the piston and the cylinder wall become badly worn does this heavy fluid find its way into the cylinder head. 

The two-stroke engines built after 1997 are not at question, rather the biggest polluters are the older two-strokes, many of which have a typical life span of 20 years or more.  Unless these older engines are mechanically retrofitted, they will continue to emit excessively high levels of hydrocarbons into the water and atmosphere. 



Gasoline, as a fuel, has been in use since around 1910 and its early forms were relatively simple and burned clean.  The gasoline used today is a complex blend that varies from producer to producer, from grade to grade, and even by location and season.

Text Box: Emissions from gasoline contain zinc, platinum, rhodium, cadmium, and iron plus six fundamental hydrocarbons, eleven basic polycyclic hydrocarbons, cyanides, ammonia, nitrous oxides, hydrogen sulfide, sulfur dioxide, ten individual aldehydes and ketones, phenols, amines, nitrosamines, and myriads variants

This fuel is so widely used because it is inexpensive to produce and contains 50 times more energy by weight than lead-acid batteries.  The advent of a range of sophisticated engine refinements have resulted in emission levels dropping to single-digit percentages as compared to the double-digit levels of only twenty years ago. 

The new ‘reformulated’ gasolines are the result of certain compounds being removed and others added to produce a fuel that is intended to be higher in octane, keep engines cleaner, and produce less emissions. However, engine manufacturers and boaters have complained that this reformulated gasoline clogs and damages outboard motors due to high carbon deposits.  

Check with your supplier, and or mechanic, to make sure that you are using the best form of gasoline for your marine engine. 

Ethanol and Methanol 

Over the years, millions of dollars have been spent on research into alternative fuels, namely ethanol and methane.  Emission tests support the claim that alcohols burn cleaner, reduce hydrocarbon emissions by half in uncatalyzed engines, and  less so in a variety of catalyzed engines.  Ethanol is made from corn, wheat, rice, oats, rye, beets, sugarcane and other common crops. Methanol is made primarily from coal, natural gas, and a variety of woods and wood by-products or effluent.  While both have higher octane ratings than gasoline, they are less energy-dense than gasoline: a gallon of ethanol contains only as much energy as two-thirds of a gallon of gasoline.  Most alcohol fuels are being used as additives in around 10 percent solution with gasoline, sold as super unleaded.  These biomass fuels emit fewer greenhouse gases but generate large quantities of formaldehyde (Mele, p 99) 


Diesel fuel is a better source of energy than gasoline.  In fact, it produces more foot-pounds of torque per gallon and per mile/km than gasoline, and at a lower cost.  It operates with an oxygen surplus (a lean exhaust condition) and produces much less carbon dioxide emissions. 

The problem with diesel fuel is primarily its emission of sulfates due to its high sulfur content, as well as the emission of particulates, unburned hydrocarbons, polycyclic aromatics, aldehydes, and a high degree of nitrogen oxides.  These  compounds are associated with smog and its many negative effects on the environment and human health.  However the new, reformulated diesel fuels  have a reduced sulfur and aromatics content, and contain cetane-enhancing additives (a hydrocarbon of the methane family that assists ignition). 

Natural Gas 

This naturally occurring petroleum product  is found in abundance worldwide.  It is a very pure fuel, requiring almost nothing in the way of refinement.  The emissions from the combustion of natural gas are much lower than gasoline, diesel fuel, and even the alcohol fuels.  There are no particulates, and almost no engine residue deposits.  It is also one of the least expensive fuels on the market. 

The downside for boaters is that to retrofit an existing fuel system to natural gas is not practical as it requires large storage space for the holding tanks.  Also, its availability is limited in certain countries and regions as distribution networks are not well established. 


There are other types of fuels being proposed for boating, but none are yet widely available or affordable.   Some of these include fuel hydrogen, solar, and electric powered.  You can check with your local marine dealer, or engine manufacturer, to find out if such soft energy options will be available in the near future.  It is not unrealistic to imagine boaters one day using zero emission fuel systems, or a combination of very low emission systems such as ethanol fuel and electric motors.



In 1998 the United States Environmental Protection Agency introduced regulations to reduce hydrocarbon emissions from marine engines by 70 to 80 percent over a phase in period ending in 2006.  In the state of California even more stringent regulations have been introduced called California Air Resources Board (CARB).  CARB requires all gasoline engine manufacturers to meet the USEPA 2006 standards by 2002 and continue the gradual reduction of exhaust emissions through 2008.  This long-term target will mean an additional 2/3 reduction in hydrocarbon emissions of engines that meet the USEPA 2006 standard. 

To satisfy these standards, marine engine manufacturers are producing new engines that meet, and often exceed these regulatory standards for outboards, personal watercraft, and jetboats.  And because American manufactured motors account for over fifty percent of worldwide sales of marine engines, these regulations will translate into significant reduction in  global hydrocarbon emissions. 



To meet the USEPA regulatory requirements engine manufacturers have been relying on three basic technologies; direct injection for two-stroke engines, catalytic converters, and high performance four-stroke technology for outboard motors. 

Direct fuel injection (DFI), two-stroke technology is designed to significantly reduce HC emissions from engines used in outboard boats and personal watercraft .  This process injects the fuel charge directly into the cylinder above the piston, after the exhaust port is closed.  Since the exhaust port is closed at time of injection, unburned fuel cannot escape through the exhaust port, as it used to in earlier two-stroke models.  The outcome of this new technology is an engine that produces 80 percent less hydrocarbon emissions and consumes between 35 to 45 percent less fuel. 

Direct-injection technology is currently available from a variety of manufacturers of outboards and range in power from 90 to 225 horsepower.  Some of the most recent PWCs go as high as 135 horsepower. 

Catalytic converters present a greater challenge despite their proven success in automotive applications.   The two main challenges to the engineers involve temperature control.  Many marine engines require water to help cool the engine and quiet the exhaust.  If the water used is saltwater, as is often the case, it will corrode engine parts and reduce the longevity of the catalyst.   The second challenge is that marine engines often operate at higher temperatures for extended periods of time.  This type of operation can lead to significant loss of conversion efficiency of the catalyst over time.  Engines equipped with catalysts and closed-loop, electronic-fuel-injection systems, like automotive engines, often can achieve more than 90 percent HC conversion efficiency.  However, these engines do not operate at higher temperatures for extended periods, which keeps the catalyst from reaching the high temperatures that can result in deactivation of the catalyst. 

For marine applications, catalyst conversion efficiency may be restricted to lower conversion efficiency levels (below 80 percent) due to these temperature concerns.  The outboard engine manufacturers are working hard to address these challenges and predictions are that a catalytic conversion system for the marine industry will be perfected by the millennium.  One PWC manufacturer has introduced a 1999 model that is equipped with a catalyst. 

Four-stroke engine designs have traditionally made up a smaller percent of the engines used to pull water skiers because they have generally been more expensive, not as quick at the start, and are usually heavier motors.  However, in recent years manufacturers have made some significant changes to make the four-stroke engines lighter, quicker to start, and smoother to operate.  They have also been able to build engines that exceed 100 horsepower due to the lighter components. 

Just about every marine engine manufacturer offers a range of four-stroke power options for nearly any marine application. 

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Codes of Practice, namely ones for Conduct and Noise, help ensure that club members are more  environmentally responsible and practice safe boating.   It also may reduce management liability should a case arise involving negligent behavior on the part of a club member. 

Some Codes include separate sections for each major area of concern such as safety regulations, boating, and water skiing.  However it is divided, the Code should be targeted to the marina operators, the water ski boat driver, and the water skier. 

Every member should be given a copy of the Code and asked to read it in its entirety. 

The following are examples of the type of ingredients found in a Code of Conduct and a Code of Practice for Water skiing and Noise:

Table of Contents of a Code of Conduct for Water Skiers and Boat Drivers 

All boat drivers and water skiers agree to:

·         Comply with all the club’s By-Laws at all times

·         Respect speed limits on the water at all times

·         Take care not to disturb wildlife and waterfowl, particularly during nesting and moulting and in sensitive areas

·         Use unleaded fuel or propane gas instead of leaded fuel

·         Do not idle engines unnecessarily

·         Drive the motorboat in a manner which produces least fuel emissions

·         Reduce wash as much as possible

·         Stay out of shallow water and well away from shorelines

·         Meet requirements for boat registration and display certificate on boat

·         Meet requirements for certificate of insurance and display certificate on boat

·         Respect club policy on noise emissions and display noise emission certificate on boat

·         Respect club requirements for driver license including annual testing and carrying the license on their person at all times when driving a motorboat

·         Follow accepted standards of boating etiquette including acting with due consideration for swimmers, fishermen and all other water or shore side users

·         Abide by By-Law # which specifies the distance from shore water skiing is permitted

·         Abide by By-Law # which specifies the hours of operation permitted for water skiing and power-boating

·         Respect all restrictions placed on sensitive areas and areas that are seasonally constrained.

·         Only refuel or use the bilge pump far from any sensitive wildlife areas.

·         Follow club policy and state law that no person shall drive a vessel, observe in a vessel or water ski behind a vessel whilst under the influence of alcohol.

·         Follow the club Safety Code and carry a copy of this Code at all times in boat

BWSF’S Code of Practice for Water Skiing and Noise

Table of Contents 

The following table of contents indicates the elements of the British Water Ski Federation’s Code of Practice for Water Skiing and Noise (1997). 

Aims of the Code
Guidance for Avoiding Significant Impact of Water Skiing Noise
Existing Facility
New Facility
Noise Limits
Method of Rating Water Ski Noise
Control and Monitoring
Water Ski Racing


Pass-by Test – Recreational, Tournament & Barefoot Skiing

Pass-by Test- Water Ski Racing

Summary of Criteria

Typical Activities at British Water Ski Clubs

Characteristics Usage of Water Ski Tow Boats

Possible Boat Concentrations for Water Skiing

Guidance on Method of Calculation of Water Ski Noise

Glossary of Acoustical Terms 

The BWSF’s  Code of Practice for Noise states that “the following factors should be considered where water skiing takes place or is proposed to take place:” 

Regard should be had to the following factors: 

·         Noise output of boat

·         Course layout

·         Hours of Operation

·         Number of boats in use at any one time

·         Screening

·         Public address systems

·         Cars and car parking 

To obtain a copy of the BWSF’s Code of Practice for Noise contact: 

The British Water Ski Federation      
390 City Road

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The Waste Audit:  

A first step of a waste management plan is to conduct a waste audit to determine what items are going into the waste stream at the marina.  While a waste audit is not critical to a sound waste management program it is a very good barometer for determining its success, particularly over the long term. 

Waste audits are simple and usually not unreasonable in cost.  They often pay for themselves over a short time due to accrued savings from reduced waste haulage costs. 

The following are the steps involved in a standard solid waste audit: 

1.      Review and inventory all marina operations and activities

2.      Identify waste categories (i.e. plastics, cardboard, newsprint, aluminum, glass, yard waste etc.)

3.      Plan audit (when, where, tools needed, waste collection, how much, number of audits etc)

4.      Conduct audit

5.      Prepare waste audit report 

Typically, a club/marina will examine the types of wastes and how much of each type is being generated over a given time period, usually not less than one week’s operation. 

At the end of each day during that period, the waste materials are separated into preset categories such as glass, plastic, paper and hazardous waste.  

After all categories have been weighed and weights recorded management will have a fairly accurate picture of what wastes are being generated. 

All audit findings are projected over time (usually a year) making it all the more important that the waste audit reflect normal operating practices.  If special events are scheduled, then projections for these events can be made and added as separate line items in the report. 

Waste auditing can be a messy business and it may be best to let a professional consulting company perform the audit.  The findings will play an important role in the waste reduction targets you set for your club/marina. 

Another place to look for support is your local government office that deals with waste issues.  Often, these departments have advisors and useful guide documents to take you through an audit and help you set up a waste diversion program. 

Based on the audit findings, management can then develop a comprehensive 4Rs waste management strategy and set objectives figuring in how many categories of items can be diverted from landfill or incineration, recycled, reused or avoided altogether. 

Performance indicators, like waste diversion goals, can then be set. 

Your next step is to contract with a local waste hauler for removal of recyclables and other wastes.  By shopping around you may find one more reasonable in price than another. 

Waste Diversion Program: 

Once you have decided what materials you intend to divert from the waste stream through a recycling or reuse program, and have contracted with your local waste hauler, you are ready to set up your containers. 

What you will Need:  

·         Waste containers for recyclables, reusable items, and other garbage wastes—all with strong ,secure lids.

Colour code and label systems for the different material containers to prevent  contamination (i.e. recyclables being placed in garbage containers)

·         Well thought out placement for each of the containers

·         Very easy to read signage indicating what item goes where

·         Storage space for each category of wastes

·         Regular emptying of containers

·         Response system to questions about waste program from staff and customers

·         Staff trained to look for contamination problems with recyclables and encouraged to come up with solutions to problems

·         Another waste audit to measure effectiveness of program

·         Improvements made where necessary keeping principles of 4Rs in mind 

Communication and Education: 

Key components of a successful waste diversion program are communication and education.  All staff, members, and guests coming on to the property should be aware that such a program is in place.  They can be encouraged to participate through well placed, easy to understand signage and club/marina posters and literature. 

If records are being well kept and waste diversion successes evident, the program manager may want to post these results for all to see.  By letting people know that the club/marina has diverted x number of tons of waste, and saved x number of dollars, they may feel a greater sense of program ownership and desire to see it to succeed even further.   

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I have read and agree with the intent of the Clean Boating Policy. I am aware that the marina is adopting Clean Boating Practices throughout the facility.  I will make every effort to comply with those practices where possible and help the marina to protest our natural environment. 

As the owner of       (boat name)         , and as the tenant of                   (Marina name)          , I,  

         (Name)         ,  confirm that I have read, that I am familiar with and I fully agree with the intent of the Clean Boating Policy and the following guidelines. 

In becoming a tenant, I commit myself, by guests, and my crew: 

1)      To keep all refuse and garbage of any kind on board the boat until we are able to place it in the waste containers on shore.

2)      To separate all recyclables and place them in the appropriate containers

3)      To separate hazardous wastes, including used oils and antifreeze, unwanted paints, solvents and cleaners, batteries, old unusable fuel, and used oil filters and dispose of them in accordance with marina guidelines or else take such waste to the licensed household hazardous waste collection site. 

4)      To take all necessary steps to avoid spilling fuel, oil or any chemicals or cleaners whatsoever into the water, to refrain from pumping oil-contaminated bilge water overboard and to be guided by instructions from the attendant when at the gasoline and/or pump-out dock..

5)      To carry out any repair work on the boat in designated areas only, taking all precautions required by the marina to avoid leaving any debris, litter or liquid contaminants on the ground. 

6)      To use the onshore washroom facilities whenever practical, as long as the boat is at the dock and to avoid pumping grey water overboard when in the marina. 

7)      To never discharge raw sewage from the black-water holding tanks to anywhere other than an approved pump-out facility.

8)      To use environmentally-safe products whenever and wherever possible

9)      To operate my boat in a safe and considerate manner at all times, to operate the engines only when necessary, to avoid creating a wake when entering and leaving the dock, and to avoid causing a nuisance to all others using the marina’s facilities. 

10)      To always show respect for the environment and for the fish, birds, and animals and all other creatures that share it with us.

11)      To abide by all of the marina’s Codes, including the Code of Conduct and Code of Practice for Noise.


Signed:___________________________________     Date: ________________________


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IWSF Headquarters

IWSF Headquarters
Postbox 564
6314 Unteraegeri

Fax: +41 41 7520099
Tel:+41 41 7520095
email :

Mr. Kuno Ritschard 
Alte Landstrasse 19
Postbox 564
6314 Unteraegeri, Switzerland

Phone: +41.41.7520095
Fax: +41.41.7520099
Mobile: +41.79.2092868
Mobile fax: +41.79.2088291
Secretary General
Ms. Jeffry Armstrong
85 First Street
Grenada, MS 38901

work phone: (662)226-4438
home phone: (662)565-2214
fax: (662)226-4949


IWSF Environment Subcommittee  




Aubrey Sheena 


Great Britain

Colin Ellison AA Australia
Gillian Hill EAME Great Britain
Chris Howarth AA China (Hong Kong)
Leon Larsen PANAM United States of America
Vern Oberg PANAM Canada


Every country and/or region has its own national and provincial/state organizations and associations that may be of interest.  The following lists offer some of the possible titles to search for, keeping in mind that there may be variations in titles from country to country, and language to language.  

Most of the listings can be located on the internet through a search by name and jurisdiction (i.e. ‘Greenpeace and Germany’ or ‘American Water Ski Association’).  Other sources are the library, your local phone book, and trade magazines or journals.  

Water Ski and Boating

National Water Ski Federation or Association  
Water Skiing Associations  
Marina Operators Association  
Marine Manufacturers Association  
Marine Industries Association/Federation  
Marine Boatbuilders Association/Federation  


Government Agency – Ministry of Natural Resources or Environment, Environmental Protection Agency, Department of Marine Management etc.  
Conservation Authority


Greenpeace – by country  
Conservation Associations/Clubs -- Audobon Society, Sierra Club


Cottagers Association  
National Standards Institute / Association  

Educational Institutions  

University – Departments of:  Aquatic Sciences, Biology, Environmental Sciences, 
Ecology, Resource Management, Mechanical Engineering etc.  
Library –     local and university  


For consultants and general information on EMS search the internet under key words such as:

ISO and 14000

EMS Consultants

            EMS and Marina  

International Standards Organization Hompage --

ISO 14000 series on EMS        

Both the Canadian Standards Association and the British Standards Institution have produced extensive materials on EMS.  These can be obtained by contacting either organization on the internet or directly  

Canadian Standards Association

178 Rexdale Boulevard  
Etobicoke, ON  
M9W 1R3  
Other Locations – CSA Edmonton, CSA Montreal, CSA Vancouver, CSA Hong Kong, CSA Japan, CSA California  

British Standards Institution –  

British Standards House  
389 Chiswick High Road  
London, United Kingdom  
W4 4AL  
Tel: +44 (0) 208 996 9000                              Customer Services:  
Fax: +44 (0) 208 996 7400                             Tel: +44 (0) 208 996 9001  
                                                                            Fax: +44 (0) 208 996 7001  


American Water Ski Association –  

British Columbia Marine Awareness Society –  

Center for Marine Conservation –  

Conservation and Land Management (Australia) –  

Department of Transport  Marine Section (Australia) (Rob Kay) –  

Environment Canada

Marine Environmental Data Service 
Leif Stephanson, Transportation Systems Branch –  

The Canadian Pollution Prevention Information Clearinghouse:            


International Council of Marine Industry Associations (ICOMIA) –

International Water Ski Federation –  

Mining Company –  

National Boat Network –  

Boating Industry International Online:  

North American Lake Management Society – 
Canadian Office –  

Ontario Environmental Network –  

Recreational Boat Building Industry –  

Swan River Trust (Perth, Australia) –  

United States Environmental Protection Agency – Office of Mobile Sources:

USEPA – Boat Operation Management Measure:

USEPA -- Final rule on emission regulations:

USEPA – Management Measures for Marinas and Recreational Boating:

USEPA – Petroleum Control Management Measure:  

Waterski News Online –  

Water Ski Canada –  

Worldwatch Institute –  


Introduction - Part A

Waterskiing, Boating and the Environment - Part B

Practical Steps to Environmentally Responsible Water Skiing and Boating - Part C

Recommended Best Practices for Club/Marina Operators

Top of Appendices